Historical Consciousness and Historical Thinking

In the field of history education, the terms “historical thinking” and “historical consciousness” draw from two different pedagogical traditions, Anglo-American and German, respectively. In this chapter, Seixas compares the two, asks where they overlap and explores the theoretical and practical benefits attained by clarifying their differences at a moment when history educators are increasingly involved in international dialogue and exchange. Examples are drawn from Quebecois research, the Swedish national curriculum, the German “FUER” model, Dutch heritage education and the Canadian Historical Thinking Project. The chapter concludes with questions and challenges currently facing both traditions.