Filosofia I Teoria Iistorii (Philosophy and theory of history. Book 1. Prolegomena)

Abstract
The book is written in Russian.
В книге излагаются основные идеи и предварительные результаты исследований по философии истории, теоретической истории и макросоциологии. Данная тематика является пересечением широкого круга областей исследования, таких как: социальная философия, логика и методология социальных наук, геополитика, геоэкономика и геокультура, теоретическая социология, культурология и теория международных отношений, теория и история цивилизаций, социальная, политическая и культурная антропология и др.
Проведено философское обоснование теоретической истории как самостоятельной и перспективной дисциплины, развернуто представление о взаимоотношении теорий, парадигм и исследовательских программ, описаны наиболее яркие и плодотворные подходы и результаты исследований по теоретической истории в современной зарубежной науке (Р.Карнейро, Р.Коллинз, Т.Скочпол, А.Стинчкомб и др.), проведен обзор современных альтернативных взгляддов на периодизацию Всемирной истории и предложен новый философски и теоретически обоснованный вариант пер
иодизации, представлены концепции социальной онтологии, модели динамических стратегий, базовых факторов социальной эволюции. Рассмотрены проблемы современного кризисного развития философии и факторов изменения долговременной значимости философских проблем. Представлена идея номологического синтеза социальных наук на основе интеграции накапливаемых проверяемых теоретических результатов.
Настоящее издание может быть использовано в планировании самостоятельных исследований, в преподавании и изучении университетских курсов по всем указанным выше дисциплинам, при самостоятельной подготовке аспирантов по соответствующим специальностям. Книга предназначена для всех интересующихся философскими и теоретическими вопросами истории.

TABLE OF CONTENTS



Preface



Chapter 1. Necessity and possibility of philosophical and theoretical history ..... 8

1.1. Rational perspective

1.2. Problematization in the philosophy and theory of history

1.3. Theoretical history as a science and its place among other disciplines

1.4. Karl Popper against theoretical history

1.5. Values, phenomenology and pragmatic background research

1.6. Meaning of history: preliminary ideas



Chapter 2. Theories , paradigms and research programs ... 106

2.1. Purpose of theories

2.2. Theory in history: the logical structure

2.3. Paradigms, their composition and use

2.4. Research programs

2.5. The criterion of research programs progressivity

2.6. Methodological levels: from theories through models and data to the descriptions and evidence

2.7. "Method of pincers" and shuttle iteration

2.9. Models and theories of causal relations in the world system by Chase Dunn

2.10 . Formation of a research program in theoretical history



Chapter 3. Social Ontology, macrohistorical paradigms, and dynamics model ... 146

3.1. The structure of social ontology

3.2. Historical systems and ontological space

3.3. Basic factors and the dynamic evolution of social strategies



Chapter 4. Experience of theoretical history: examples of successful research .... 199

4.1. Factors of class and politogenesis (research by A.V.Korotaev )

4.2. Origin of the state : the reconstruction of the research program by Robert Carneiro

4.3. Social revolution and collapse: reconstruction of the research program by Theda Skocpol

4.4. Laws of geopolitics and legitimacy: reconstruction of the research program by Randall Collins

4.5. Experience of spanning comparisons



Chapter 5. Towards validated periodization of world history ... 292

5.1. Problems of world history periodization

5.2. An overview of modern approaches to structuring world history

5.3. Ontological and theoretical foundations of the world history periodization

5.4 . Conceptual design and criteria for periodization

5.5. The core periodization of world history: preliminary solutions and versions



6.1. Chapter 6 . Method of theoretical history .... 391

6.2 . Step 1. Problematization . Statement of the problem and restructuring of theoretical field

6.3 . Step 2 . Featuring . Fixing of explanandum: explanatory variables and class of effects

6.4. Step 3 . Initial theorizing . Formation and operationalization of explanans variables

6.5. Step 4 . Logical- heuristic analysis . Regrouping and logical analysis of cases, the conceptual adaptation and identification of relevant explanans variables

6.6. Step 5 . Content analysis of historical cases . The study of causal mechanisms

6.7. Step 6 . Overcoming of primary anomalies. Anomaly detection, the approach to conceptual enrichment

6.8. Step 7 . Numerical analysis . Scaling variables , revealing strength of causal relationships

6.9. Step 8. Overcoming of secondary anomalies

6.10 . Step 9 . The final theorizing and pragmatism. Explication and formalization of theory. Development of methods and means for practical and cognitive problems solving

6.11 . Opportunities for global scientific communications



Chapter 7. The destiny of philosophy in the context of the historical dynamics of intellectual creativity

7.1. Crisis and transformation of philosophy ... 551

7.1.1 . Basic concepts

7.1.2 . ‘Hamburg reckoning’ for the status of philosophy

7.1.3 . Peripherisation of philosophy

7.1.4 . Who is to blame?

7.1.5 . Historical precedents of crisis and recovery

7.1.6 . Historical lesson: logical reasoning

7.1.7 . Global problems and three megatrends of global development

7.1.8 . Liberal Westernism and sovereign patriotism - is there a third way ?

7.1.9 . Golden Age of historical macrosociology

7.1.10 . What is the future of philosophy?

7.1.11 . Economic and institutional framework

7.1.12 . The decline of scientific schools

7.1.13 . What to do? Philosophy Strategy for the XXI Century

7.1.14 . The second philosophical transformation?



7.2. What makes a great philosophical problem? 580 ........

· 7.2.1 . Problems as semantic nodes of philosophizing

· 7.2.2.Basic concepts

· 7.2.3 . The significance of philosophical problems: historical assessment

· 7.2.4 . Approach of theoretical history

· 7.2.5 . Steps and procedures of systematic study of the dynamics of philosophical problems importance

· 7.2.6 . "Damned questions of philosophy " as positive cases

· 7.2.7 . " Problems-losers " as negative cases

· 7.2.8 . Explanans variables - hypothetical factors of philosophical problems significance

· 7.2.9 . Three levels of philosophical problems generation

· 7.2.10 . Reality and intellectual power hierarchies

· 7.2.11 . Intellectual attention space and dynamics of transformation of philosophical positions

· 7.2.12 . Factor model explaining the significance of philosophical problems

· 7.2.13 . Conclusion



Chapter 8. Towards nomological synthesis of social sciences and humanities ...... 614

8.1. " Deconstruction of discourse" - the present state of social and human cognition

8.2 . New round of Metodenstreit

8.3. What is the real success of a broad scientific program \

8.4. The ideal model of intelligent design - an interdisciplinary network of laws

8.5. Nomological approach to social cognition

8.6. Spheres of life - the worlds of action of different laws

8.7. Hybrid objects and laws : the interpretation of the laws of intellectual development by R.Collins

8.8. Theoretical laws in the social and historical knowledge

8.9. Drawing nomological synthesis : gaps in the network of laws

8.10 . Deployment capability concept and program of nomological synthesis

References