The Meaning of History as a Trial for Humanity: Philosophical Foundations for a Global Multilevel Legal and Judicial System

Philosophical approach in meditations about global future is adequate at least for three reasons. At first, the philosophy has always been and will likely remain an excellent critical weapon, a means for overcoming outdated, impeding development ideologies (although new ideologies are usually made up from old philosophical ideas that have become thought cliché). Secondly, the philosophy surpasses all other approaches in the breadth of vision, and namely the breadth is significant in today's conflictual world. Thirdly, as it will be shown later, the future does not exist, no positive science of anything non-existent is possible, all prognostic approaches have well known limitations, not to mention the fact that neither science nor prognostics are capable in general to provide own value and normative judgments. At the same time philosophy, which obtains a wide range of well elaborated, non-trivial ways of abstract reasoning, can and should advance significantl
y our thinking about global and national future.
Instead of Conclusion:
the Trial for the Human Race Outlined by Immanuel Kant
Is to Be Passed Yet
Let us return to Kant's thought as expressed in the epigraph to this paper: the main challenge (test, trial) for the human race to be worthy for life and well-being is to achieve universal legal civil society.
It is known that the international projects of ‘the Holy Alliance’ and ‘the Concert of Europe’ in the 19-th century, the League of Nations and the UN in the 20-th century relied to a greater or lesser extent on the old ideas of perpetual peace by Abbe de Saint-Pierre, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in particular Immanuel Kant. However, almost no one says that the global problem posed by Kant, is by no means complete yet.
The formula ‘to achieve universal legal civil society’ (‘die Erreichung einer allgemein das Recht verwaltenden bürgerlichen Gesellschaft’) is rather close to the categorical imperative as a key principle of Kant's ethics: to treat everyone not only as a means but as a goal.
Thanks to the institution of citizenship, each nation-state protects more or less its citizens, and yet remains almost completely indifferent to non-citizens, to strangers, and has no special moral and legal obligations to other states with their citizens, especially to the weaker and somehow annoying countries. Kant's appeal to create a union of states on a global scale through a series of attempts (see above), finally, is embodied in United Nations, which protects sometimes more, sometimes less effectively small and weak states from oppression and aggression. However, the universal legal and civil principles, albeit abstractly declared in the Declaration of Human Rights, still are not institutionalized at the regional and global level, and virtually have no effect beyond the developed legal societies.
The multi-level legal and judicial system as a new stage of development of the global Gesellschaft based on values of general significance should be just an embodiment of this brave humanist idea by Immanuel Kant.
Perhaps the ultimate trial for man and mankind is to understand what is it. On understanding of it largely depends what will be the human Future.